True Science
Science: "to know"

Astronomy is the scientific study of matter outside of the atmosphere of the Earth including stars, planets, galaxies, comets, gas, dust and other non-Earthly bodies. 

The Universe exists. The Universe is also expanding. The "what" part is easy. But now comes the hard part, "why" does it exist, and "why" is it expanding? Another serious question involves "when" the universe began to exist or expand.

The Limitations of Science

In his book: "The Limitations of Scientific Truth,"Nigel Brush stated: "The theories generated by the hard sciences to explain how natural phenomena originated (e.g., the dinosaurs, the continents, or the planets) are historical, rather than experimental. The focus is upon unique, one-time events that can't be duplicated in the laboratory." "Therefore, the creation of the visible universe is a one-time event that is not continuing to happen today."

"Astronomers who are studying cosmology are very much like historians who are studying human history; both are dealing with one-time events; both are trying to reconstruct what happened in the past based on the fragmentary evidence that still exists in the present." p. 94

In an essay titled "Literary Bias on the Slippery Slope," Stephen J. Gould noted: "So much of science proceeds by telling stories - and we are especially vulnerable to constraints of this medium because we so rarely recognize what we are doing.  We think that we are reading nature by applying rules of logic and laws of matter to our observations.  But we are often telling stories - in the good sense, but stories nonetheless."  (1991, 251) p. 104

Gould also said: "This (storytelling) constraint does not apply only to something so clearly ripe for narration and close to home as "the rise of man from apes' (to choose story-like description that enfolds biases of gender and progress into its conventionality). Even the most distant and abstract subjects, like the formation of the universe or the principles of evolution, fall within the bounds of necessary narrative." (1991, 251) p. 112

"Our senses are governed by our minds, and too often we see what we want to see, hear what we want to hear. Once again, facts do not speak for themselves; they must be interpreted!" p. 248 

There are many questions that still need to be answered in regards to astronomy, such as: Why do three planets spin backwards?  Why do at least six moons revolve backwards?  If comets only last 10,000 years or less, why do we still have some?  How could an explosion produce order?  Why aren't meteorites found in supposedly old rocks?  Why have all the hypotheses for the origin of our moon failed?  Lot's of answers still to be searched for!  Will our chosen worldview help or hinder our research?

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